Brain injury, Pupil, Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects more than 1.4 mil-lion Americans annually.1 These injuries, defined as a blow or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts normal brain function,2 occur as a result of falls (28%), motor vehicle crashes (20%), … Head injuries vary widely in their etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and optimal treatment strategies. Head injuries can be classified according to; 1. Moderate head injury — There is a more obvious injury to the outside of the head, and the person may have lost consciousness briefly. The severity of the injury. Mild traumatic brain injury may affect your brain cells temporarily. Classification of head injury. An object that penetrates brain tissue, such as a bullet or shattered piece of skull, also can cause traumatic brain injury. Focal brain injuries, which are usually caused by direct blows to the head, comprise … and classification of closed head injuries and for serial assessment of closed head injuries. Mechanisms of Injury 9 Table 1-2 MVC-related Mechanisms of Injury Pathway Potential Injuries Unrestrained— Head, face, and neck injuries from impact “up and over” with windshield or sunroof Chest injuries—steering wheel impact Abdominal injuries—steering wheel impact (dependent upon body habitus) Airbag injury to face, neck, chest () Abstract. Broadly speaking, there are two categories of brain injury: focal injuries and diffuse injuries. 2. The mechanism of injury involves either a direct blow to the head or forces elsewhere on the body that are transmitted to the head. The male-to-female ratio for traumatic brain injury is nearly 2:1, and traumatic brain injury is much more common in persons younger than 35 years. Pathological classification-penetrating or blunt injury 4. As the primary insult, which represents the direct mechanical damage, cannot be therapeutically influenced, target of the treatment is the limitation of the secondary damage (delayed non-mechanical damage). A head injury is a broad term that describes a vast array of injuries that occur to the scalp, skull, brain, and underlying tissue and blood vessels in the head. The knowledge of the pathophysiology after traumatic head injury is necessary for adequate and patient-oriented treatment. Specific to motor vehicle rear-impact crashes, abnormal motions of the head–neck complex during the application of… There is good quality evidence to relate initial GCS score to outcome. Coup-contrecoup – This type of traumatic brain injury is a contusion that occurs both at the site of impact on the opposite side of the brain. This is believed to result in neuron dysfunction, as there are increased glucose requirements, but not enough blood supply. Diffuse-axonal Injury – This injury can be caused by a strong rotation of the head, such as when produced by the rotational forces of a car accident. Traumatic brain injury usually results from a violent blow or jolt to the head or body. Initial GCS on admission to hospital is used to classify head injuries into the broad prognostic groups of mild (GCS 14-15), moderate (GCS 9-13) and severe (GCS 3-8). Anatomical classification 3.  Head injuries are also commonly referred to as brain injury, or traumatic brain injury (TBI), depending on the extent of the head trauma. Chapter 3 Mechanism of injury Brian D. Stemper, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A. Pintar, Dennis J. Maiman Injuries to the human body from external dynamic exposure occur due to the application of abnormal loads or motions that exceed physiological limits.
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