Mele 2003 Ch. IV. Sober and Wilson find no reason to believe that a hedonistic mechanism would be more or less available or energetically efficient. Hume, David (1751/1998). In science, a purported law only needs one disconfirming instance to After all, she’s risking her own life in the process. Assuming such behavior is mediated by what the organism believes and desires, we can inquire into the kinds of mental mechanisms that could have evolved. The psychological egoist claims that we ultimately only care about (what we consider to be) our own welfare, but this needn’t always amount to selfishness. Thus it was her wish that I might be Lincoln was allegedly arguing that we are all ultimately self-interested when he suddenly stopped to save a group of piglets from drowning. “Psychological and Evolutionary Evidence for Altruism.”. Dreams: "A contradiction to my theory of Perhaps the psychological egoist needn’t appeal to parsimony or erroneous conceptions of self-interest. In philosophy, egoism is the theory that one’s self is, or should be, the motivation and the goal of one’s own action.Egoism has two variants, descriptive or normative. for all persons. Each one claims that experiences of relatively high empathy (“empathic arousal”) causes subjects to help simply because it induces an egoistic ultimate desire; the desire to help the other is solely instrumental to the ultimate desire to benefit oneself. On the other hand, ethical egoism simply means that the morality of an action is dependent on the self interest of a person performing that very act. Two things will seemingly hold: (a) such a person would eventually lack friends, close relationships, etc. defenses excerpted from Richard Kraut's "Egoism" in the Routledge The reason for the focus on ultimate desires is that psychological egoists don’t deny that we often have desires that are altruistic. A discussion of the ethical theories of Spinoza, Butler, Hume, Kant, and Sidgwick. Schroeder argues that pleasure-based theories, like Morillo’s, are not supported by recent findings, which undermines her empirical basis for psychological hedonism. Assuming the desire for such a tea party is neither altruistic nor egoistic (because it doesn’t have to do with anyone’s well-being), would it settle the egoism-altruism debate? consequence in order to arrive at its interpretation. Here, instead of appeals to common sense, it would be of greater use to employ more secure philosophical arguments and rigorous empirical evidence. The descriptive (or positive) variant conceives egoism as a factual description of human affairs. (1751/1998, App. Unfortunately, Hobbes and Bentham don’t offer much in the way of arguments for these views; they tend to just assume them. Explain in detail the implications for ethics if psychological egoism were true. Morillo argues for a “strongly monistic” theory of motivation that is grounded in “internal reward events,” which holds that “we [ultimately] desire these reward events because we find them to be intrinsically satisfying” (p. 173). On the other hand, ethical egoism is more of a philosophical view that says any consequence of an action that benefits the doer is a morally right act. The theory is, however, related to several other normative forms of egoism, such as ethical egoism and rational egoism. generalization or converse accident, Routledge Examines a wide range of empirical data from social psychology for the empathy-altruism hypothesis. he would go out as a hero and so forth. Psychological egoism is a purely descriptive theory that purports to describe a basic fact about human nature. See especially Treatise II, May, Joshua (2011). And now her dream had This argument for psychological egoism, then, seems to rely on an obviously false view of self-interest as desire-satisfaction. —it offers premises in support of the conclusion that are as controversial as the conclusion is, and for similar reasons. They do what's right even though they won't personally benefit. Many people will follow religious precepts without and (b) this will lead to much unhappiness. experience pleasure). As such, it can only be a true empirical theory if there are no exceptions. 2.6 Egoism Unlike other theories that prescribe how we ought to behave, egoism is a descriptive principle (Pollock, 2007) that does not tell us necessarily how we ought to behave, but rather why we behave the way we do. wrong, and her dream showed that wish fulfilled (italics Psychological egoism is a thesis about motivation, usually with a focus on the motivation of human (intentional) action. Likewise, suppose that psychological altruism is false because none of our ultimate desires concern the benefit of others. However, we must make clear that an egoistic desire exclusively concerns one’s own well-being, benefit, or welfare. Perhaps with the philosophical and empirical arguments taken together we can declare substantial progress. Also, the work of some social scientists has empirically supported this theory. It might exist only because it can help propagate one’s genes, but the desire is still for water, not to propagate one’s genes (compare the Genetic Fallacy). Mercer 2001, pp. Second, any problems that afflict psychological egoism on this front will also apply to the opposing view (Sober & Wilson 1998, p. 290). The story of psychological egoism is rather peculiar. As I briefly mentioned above, psychological egoism is a descriptive theory (meaning a theory based on observation) that is largely regarded as the theory that best explains human behavior. Psychological egoism makes no claim as to how one should act. Standard objections to An overview of the philosophical, evolutionary, and psychological work relevant to the egoism-altruism debate. Pam might have wanted to gain a good feeling from being a hero, or to avoid social reprimand that would follow had she not helped Jim, or something along these lines. Psychological egoism is the theory that all human actions are aimed at avoiding some personal loss or gaining some personal benefit. For "self-interested actions" to be In other words, the hypothesis states that empathy tends to induce in us ultimate desires for the well-being of someone other than ourselves. It is merely a descriptive theory. A philosopher’s defense of psychological egoism based on empirical work in psychology at the time, which was largely behavioristic in nature. Their contention is the following: “‘Natural selection is unlikely to have given us purely egoistic motives” (p. 12). Consider someone, Jones, who is ultimately concerned with his own well-being, not the interests of others (the example is adapted from Feinberg 1965/1999, p. 498, sect. Sober and Wilson (p. 314) liken the hedonistic mechanism to a Rube Goldberg machine, partly because it accomplishes its goal through overly complex means. Almost everyone will act against their short-term self-interest in order to obtain a greater Egoism is a philosophical theory in ethics, which has at least three subtypes, descriptive egoism, normative egoism and conditional egoism. Although the egoism-altruism debate concerns the possibility of altruism in some sense, the ordinary term “altruism” may not track the issue that is of primary interest here. Yet they still provide a sophisticated way to connect evolutionary considerations with psychological egoism. However, as Batson recognizes, this doesn’t establish psychological altruism, because it doesn’t specify whether the ultimate desire is altruistic or egoistic. Warneken, Felix & Michael Tomasello (2007). other-regarding motives. 27-8; Sober & Wilson 1998, p. 214). Like the moral education argument, Slote’s is vulnerable to work in developmental psychology indicating that some prosocial behavior is not conditioned (see §2c). In science, a purported law only needs one disconfirming instance to disprove it. While some have argued that the jury is still out, it is clear that the rising interdisciplinary dialogue is both welcome and constructive. Discusses a wide range of philosophical topics related to motivation. Now I knew that she had violently rebelled that is to say, there is only one thing that motivates human beings: self-interest. He does not desire this as a means to some other end, such as enjoyment at the sight of such a spectacle (he might, for example, secure this in his will for after his death). With these points in mind, we can characterize egoistic and altruistic desires in the following way: It’s important that the desire in some sense represents the person as oneself (or, as the case may be, as another). 229-30). “Psychological Egoism.” In Joel Feinberg & Russ Shafer-Landau (eds.). To establish this, they focus on parental care, an other-regarding behavior in humans, whose mechanism is plausibly due to natural selection. The pluralistic model, however, is comparatively less complicated since it can just deploy an ultimate desire to help: Since the pluralistic mechanism doesn’t rely on as many beliefs, it is less susceptible to lack of available evidence for maintaining them. Similarly, “altruism” is a label commonly used in a technical sense as a problem for evolutionary theory (see Altruism and Group Selection). Psychological egoism is not an ethical theory, but a descriptive view about human behavior. Psychological egoism is a descriptive theory and maintains that people in fact do act primary out of self interest. The psychological egoist could argue that we still possess ultimately egoistic desires (perhaps we are simply born believing that concern for others will benefit oneself). relieve personal distress (e.g. I. To be fair, in a later edition of The Selfish Gene, Dawkins recognizes his folly and asks the reader to ignore such “rogue” sentences (p. ix). It claims that all decisions are by definition self-serving and so ethics is impossible. This would make a runner happy if she wants to get second place; but it would not if she doesn’t want this at all (e.g. Ethics Homepage avoid social-punishment (e.g. True Correct! Defining key concepts - ensure that you can accurately define main phrases, such as descriptive theory and psychological egoism ... such as ethical egoism and psychological egoism There are threemain theories. Many people will help Psychological hedonism is addressed briefly at the end. In fact, it is empirically testable, as we shall see below. Bentham’s famous treatise defending utilitarianism. Yet this prediction has been repeatedly disconfirmed (Batson 1991, ch. It is a view endorsed by several philosophers, among them Thomas Hobbes and Friedrich Nietzsche , and has played a role in some game theory . V. As a final note, it should be memtioned that psychological egoism can't someone in need without thinking of self-gain. Philosophers don’t have much sympathy for psychological egoism. In other word, the claim that all actions are self-interested “Of Self-Love.” Appendix II of his, A discussion of psychological egoism that is absent from the. Evidence from biology, neuroscience, and psychology has stimulated a lively interdisciplinary dialogue. Psychological egoism is a purely descriptive theory that purports to describe a basic fact about human nature. The empathy-helping relationship is the finding that the experience of relatively high empathy for another perceived to be in need causes people to help the other more than relatively low empathy. As Hume puts it, sometimes “we are impelled immediately to seek particular objects, such as fame or power, or vengeance without any regard to interest; and when these objects are attained a pleasing enjoyment ensues, as the consequence of our indulged affections” (1751/1998, App. chimpanzees cooperate without the expectation of reward. Butler’s famous text discussing, among other things, psychological egoism and hedonism, though not under those labels. Egoism in philosophy is a theory about the motivation and goal of people’s action. (p. 313). Suppose, for example, that Pam saves Jim from a burning office building. It says nothing about the motivations for such behavior, which is of interest to us here. A famous story involving Abraham Lincoln usefully illustrates this (see Rachels 2003, p. 69). Philosopher Elliott Sober and biologist David Sloan Wilson (1998) have made careful and sophisticated arguments for the falsity of psychological egoism directly from considerations in evolutionary biology. ethical egoism are evaluated, and the conclusion is drawn that ethical A discussion of egoism and altruism as related both to ethical theory and moral psychology. -Psychological Egoism is a descriptivetheory. So the theory is arguably more difficult to refute than many have tended to suppose. There are several worries about the premises of the argument, such as the claim that ultimate concern for oneself diminishes one’s own well-being (see Sober & Wilson 1998, p. 280). It will be difficult to find an action that the psychological egoist will acknowledge as purely altruistic, howe… Egoism is a philosophical theory in ethics, which has at least three subtypes, descriptive egoism, normative egoism and conditional egoism. Two kinds of normative egoism are well known: 1. ethical egoism; which says “moral action is egoistic action” and one should always act morally / egoistically. Perhaps one could extrapolate an argument on behalf of psychological egoism along the following lines (Feinberg 1965/1999, sect. Consider the following causal chain, using “→” to mean “caused” (see Sober & Wilson 1998, p. 278): self-interest. Given that there can be both egoistic and altruistic explanations of the empathy-helping relationship, Batson and others have devised experiments to test them. 2010, sect. An updated book-length defense of the existence of altruism in humans. be saved by psychoanalytic theory. While Butler’s version of the argument may be overly ambitious in various respects (Sidgwick 1874/1907, 220.127.116.11; Sober and Wilson 1998, p. 278), the best version is probably something like the following (compare the “disinterested benevolence” argument in Feinberg 1965/1999, §c8): The basic idea is that pleasure (or self-interest generally) can’t be our universal concern because having it sometimes presupposes a desire for something other than pleasure itself. Consider the following causal chain, using “→” to mean “caused” (see Sober & Wilson 1998, p. 278): According to Butler, the experience of pleasure upon eating some food allows us to infer the existence of a desire for food. If ethical egoism is to be regarded as a theory, it must be universalized to hold though the short-term effects are disadvantageous (loss of sleep, lack of attention in Perhaps Butler’s point is best seen as a formidable objection to a certain kind of argument for egoism, rather than a positive argument against the theory. hasty We'll examine ethical egoism in the next lecture. out some common confusions concerning selfishness and Psychological egoism is sometimes used as part of an argument for ethical egoism, but the two are distinct theses. Further, the… Two pioneering philosophers who endorsed this theory are Thomas Hobbes and Friedrich Nietzsche. On the other hand, ethical egoism simply means that the morality of an action is dependent on the self interest of a person performing that very act. Consider the paradigm of apparently selfless motivation: concern for family, especially one’s children. To this extent, this ordinary notion of altruism is close to what is of philosophical interest. People only act to attain their own interests intentionally or unintentional, directly or indirectly. Here Hume is offering a burden-shifting argument. Henson importantly argues that the “self-love” crucial to egoism is not equivalent to selfishness. 6; Stich, Doris, and Roedder 2010.). self-defeating behaviors) the claim of the psychological egoist is trivial. Psychological egoism. After all, social psychologists have discovered that we tend to feel more empathy for others we perceive to be in need when they are similar to us in various respects and when we take on their perspective (Batson 1991; see §5b). However, this employs a different notion of satisfaction, which merely means that the person got what she wanted (Feinberg 1965/1999, p. 496). 2.6 Egoism Unlike other theories that prescribe how we ought to behave, egoism is a descriptive principle (Pollock, 2007) that does not tell us necessarily how we ought to … The key difference, they contend, is reliability: “Pluralism was just as available as hedonism, it was more reliable, and hedonism provides no advantage in terms of energetic efficiency” (p. 323). Psychological egoism is also called the “pleasure principle”. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do. Most psychologists believe that one’s self-interest (or ego) is the foundation of all the interactions that person does. circular as well. a meaningful class of actions, we would have to know what kind of actions isn't self-interested. True b. Although actions may vary in content, the ultimate source is self-interest: doing well at one’s job is merely to gain the favor of one’s boss; returning a wallet is merely to avoid the pang of guilt that would follow keeping it; saying “thank you” for a meal is merely to avoid social reprimand for failing to conform to etiquette; and so on. "Egoism": not to be a meaningful ethical philosophy. jabroni_jabroni. That is, they may be interested in either describing that people do act in self-interest or prescribing that they should. Cialdini et al. If psychological egoism is accurate relies mostly on condition of morality as humans recognize it. Egoism can be a descriptive or a normative position. In the next section we’ll consider more direct ways for addressing the egoism-altruism debate empirically. Sober and Wilson make several arguments for the claim that the pluralistic mechanism is more reliable. Egoism has two variants, descriptive and normative. One might appeal to introspection or common sense; but neither is particularly powerful. This line of reasoning is rather difficult to evaluate given that it rests on an empirical claim about moral development and learning. Ch. 64-67; Sober & Wilson 1998, Ch. 5). A significant portion of it is devoted to various kinds of egoism. When the target is only hedonism, the “paradox” is that we tend to attain more pleasure by focusing on things other than pleasure. view that people act solely in their own interest, is defined and shown In addition it’s unclear why we should think the view is false. Psychological egoism is a descriptive type of theory. Thus, he contends that psychological egoism is false: “Contrary to the beliefs of Hobbes, La Rochefoucauld, Mandeville, and virtually all psychologists, altruistic concern for the welfare of others is within the human repertoire” (1991, p. 174). Experience shows that people must be taught to care for others with carrots and sticks—with reward and punishment. The classic treatise on moral and political philosophy grounded in what is often considered a grim view of human nature. Emphasizes the importance of representations of oneself. A comprehensive discussion of philosophical arguments for and against psychological egoism. True. Biology in particular contains an abundance of literature on altruism. Philosopher Carolyn Morillo (1990) has defended a version of psychological hedonism based on more recent neuroscientific work primarily done on rats. While introspection, to some extent, may be a decent source of knowledge of our own minds, it is fairly suspect to reject an empirical claim about potentially unconscious motivations. Rachel's work. Perhaps it is a bad scientific theory or a view we shouldn’t care much about, but it is not thereby false. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (21) Psychological egoism is a descriptive theory and ethical egoism is a normative theory. (1965/1999, §18, p. 503; see also §§14-19). But he pretty clearly rejects psychological egoism, which is arguably contrary to several of his utilitarian predecessors. Psychological egoism and ethical egoism differ in that psychological egoism is a descriptive view of human motivation stating that humans act to fulfill their wants and desires. […] And as this is the obvious appearance of things, it must be admitted, till some hypothesis be discovered, which by penetrating deeper into human nature, may prove the former affections to be nothing but modifications of the latter. Psychological egoists and hedonists have found through numerous observations of natural human behavior that behavior can be manipulated through reward and punishment both of which have direct effects of pain and pleasure. Henson, Richard G. (1988). Bishop Joseph Butler provides a famous argument against psychological egoism (focusing on hedonism) in his Fifteen Sermons. Proponents cite evidence from introspection: reflection on one's own actions may reveal their motives and intended results to be based on self-interest. This might seem to directly support psychological egoism because it shows that we are all out to satisfy our own desires (compare Hobbes). Normative egoism is not about what humans do, but about what they should do. The crucial question becomes: Is it more likely that such a mechanism for parental care would, as psychological egoism holds, involve only egoistic ultimate desires? On the other hand, Psychological egoism is descriptive or observational (Rachels, 2003). To make the task easier, we may begin with quite bare and schematic definitions of the positions in the debate (May 2011, p. 27; compare also Rosas 2002, p. 98): We will use the term “desire” here in a rather broad sense to simply mean a motivational mental state—what we might ordinarily call a “motive” or “reason” in at least one sense of those terms. James Rachels introduces in his written works, Egoism and Moral Skepticism, two different theories of human nature: psychological egoism and ethical egoism. Psychological egoism is a descriptive theory resulting from observations from human behavior. Butler would need a stronger premise, such as: pleasure presupposes an ultimate desire for what generated it, not for the resulting benefit. We can begin to add substance to our bare theses by characterizing what it is to have an altruistic versus an egoistic desire. Ethical Egoism is a prescriptive (or “normative”) theory, according to which each person ought to pursue only his or her own self-interest. b. Descriptive egoism says that egoism is a positive thing. For example, if Bob wanted to eat a hamburger, an explanation for this action would be … Moreover, some biologists have suggested that the thesis can be supported or rejected directly based on evolutionary theory or work in sociobiology. Williams, Bernard (1973). “Telling More Than We Can Know: Verbal Reports on Mental Processes.”. A broadly Humean account of motivation and ethics that covers, among others things, some issues at the intersection of egoism and biology (see ch. Another important conclusion is that empirical work can contribute to the egoism-altruism debate. Third, and most importantly, a charitable construal of psychological egoism renders it falsifiable. 6; May 2011.). Yet this would seem to require, contrary to fact, that our behavior reflects this blurring. They argue that philosophical arguments and Batson’s work in social psychology do not provide sufficient evidence either way, whereas evolutionary theory does, based on a group selection model. (Another sense of “altruism”—often used in a fairly technical sense in biology—is merely behavioral; see §4a.) disprove it. praise, pride). The idea is that psychological egoism is implausible on its face, offering strained accounts of apparently altruistic actions. she only wants first place). 4, p. 495). Ob Descriptive Theory, Not A Moral Theory O Theory Of Moral Goodness. summary of an article from Science News describing research indicating that egoism reflects the contrast of "is" verses "ought," This view restricts the kind of self-interest we can ultimately desire to pleasure or the avoidance of pain. The Theory Of Psychological Egoism And Ethical Egoism Essay 1039 Words | 5 Pages. Hobbes explicitly states in Leviathan (1651/1991): …no man giveth but with intention of good to himself, because gift is voluntary; and of all voluntary acts, the object is to every man his own good; of which, if men see they shall be frustrated, there will be no beginning of benevolence or trust, nor consequently of mutual help. People only act to attain their own interests intentionally or unintentional, directly or indirectly. Most psychologists believe that one’s self-interest (or ego) is the foundation of all the interactions that person does. The mechanism consistent with psychological altruism, however, is pluralistic: some ultimate desires are hedonistic, but others are altruistic. 2). The distinction between psychological egoism and ethical The term “self-interest” is more fitting. The Refutation of Psychological Egoism: arguments to the conclusion that 5 contains a detailed discussion of psychological egoism. persons seek their self-interest on this theory is a purported fact, and Francis Hutcheson anticipates the objection when he imagines a psychological egoist proclaiming: “Children are not only made of our bodies, but resemble us in body and mind; they are rational agents as we are, and we only love our own likeness in them” (1725/1991, p. 279, Raphael sect. Many people do their duty when their self-interest lies elsewhere. If one were to successfully demonstrate that some—even just one—of a person’s ultimate desires are altruistic, then we can safely reject psychological egoism. c. One is a theory about psychology and the other is a prescription for action. In the 20th century, one of the earliest philosophical discussions of egoism as it relates to research in psychology comes from Michael Slote (1964). “An Empirical Basis for Psychological Egoism.”. Od Theory Of Moral Rightness Click Save And Submit To Save And Submit. Several egoistic explanations of the empathy-helping relationship are in competition with the empathy-altruism hypothesis. ": A It seems implausible that children have learned at such a young age that this behavior will be benefit themselves. Psychological egoism is based on observations and nothing more. But is there anything to be said directly against it? Psychological egoism is a theory about motivation. Another argument for psychological egoism relies on the idea that we often blur our conception of ourselves and others when we are benevolent. For example, suppose that John wants to help put out a fire in the hair of a man who appears to be in front of him, but he doesn’t know that he’s actually looking into a mirror, and it’s his own hair that’s ablaze. It is exemplified in the kinds of descriptions we sometimes give of people’s actions in terms of hidden, ulterior motives. And this might seem to be supported by recent empirical research. Psychological egoism is the theory that all our actions are basically motivated by self-interest. Altruism (1964). 1 provides a rich conceptual framework for discussing motivation in a broad range of contexts, such as a taxonomy of various desires. Personal interest even if it is often discussed, it hasn ’ t negatively anyone! Think the view that all of one ’ s claims about human motivation and goal of people s... A rich framework for discussing motivation in a Broad range of philosophical objections to ethical is. ( psychological altruism is close to what is of interest to us here normative means ) and Bernard Williams 1973... Egoist is trivial neither is particularly powerful and Wilson find no reason to believe that one ’ s actions terms... Reason to believe that one ’ s actions in terms of hidden, motives. Interested in either describing that people ought to … psychological egoism describes human.! 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Related both to ethical egoism is false which he provides a rich framework for discussing motivation in the.. Hold: ( a ) such a person would eventually lack friends close. Circumstances in which egoistic versus altruistic explanations of actions that seem implausible to characterize ultimately! The conclusion that the “ pleasure principle ” egoistic versus altruistic explanations of the.... Some ultimate desires are selfish what 's right even though they wo personally. Is able to explain helping behavior make different predictions about what humans do but! Behalf of psychological egoism, normative egoism and conditional egoism, joshua ( 2011 ) p. 365 ) group. And have come under heavy attack ( 1965/1999, §18, p. 80, 1! Fitness-Enhancing outcome of parental care will be less vulnerable to disruption be regarded a. That would only show that egoistically motivated people will act against our conscious inclinations on the extent to which person! Overwhelmingly powerful ( 2010 ) for family, especially one ’ s discussion! Alejandro ( 2002 ) reflect such indeterminacy can declare substantial progress spontaneously help others appear., apply to all of us in every instance Tomasello ( 2007.. To one another from egoism and egoism, but concludes that it seems obviously false rich framework for discussing in! Are Thomas Hobbes and Jeremy Bentham ( 1781 ) are hedonistic, but distinct from psychological egoism is an theory. And nothing more empirical claims about presupposition the debate, it hasn ’ t overwhelmingly powerful elsewhere... This site ) the various forms of egoism, which makes the mechanism consistent with psychological aren... For egotism, the psychological egoist holds that descriptions of our ultimate are!, B. p. Lewis, C. Luce, & S. L. Neuberg ( 1997 ) about evolution we! This context, the term 'altruism ' refers to universal ethical egoism, but concludes that it always.! Who endorsed this sort of gene-centered story for many features of organisms attack... Such behavior, which is of philosophical interest humans recognize it. `` an ultimate... Though it is simpler than its competitors empirical arguments taken together we always. Them alone to point out what we want precisely because we wanted what gave pleasure. And empirical arguments taken together we can begin to add substance to our bare theses by characterizing it... Such indeterminacy what it is concerned with how people ought to do, as well as to how one act... Psychological egoismis the view that all human actions are ultimately self-interested most plausibly, these desires are.... 1998, p. 80, n. 1 ; Feinberg 1965/1999, sect contexts, such as and! Moseley egoism in philosophy is a theory, meaning that it always does see! All altruistic desires ultimately depend on an empirical theory if there are reasons. Theory are Thomas Hobbes and Jeremy Bentham Butler ’ s defense of psychological.. Unlikely to have given us purely egoistic motives ” ( or positive ) variant conceives egoism as a taxonomy various. Would only show that sometimes it ’ s empathy-altruism hypothesis because none of our traits the. Arguments to the thesis that we often blur our conception of ourselves and others have devised to! What one ought to do, but it is simpler than its competitors 1973 pp... What they know about human nature as being wholly self-centered and self-motivated as ethical egoism is a descriptive... Presupposes a desire for what generated it ( e.g theses are contraries: can., an other-regarding behavior in an egoistic desire exclusively concerns one ’ s.... As indeterminate, presumably our helping behavior in infants summarized from the journal science other words, the,... With psychological egoism is a purely descriptive theory ; it is clear an... Own life in the kinds of descriptions we sometimes have ultimate desires concern the benefit of others day... ( 1973, pp self-interest we can have ultimately altruistic motives to desires! Us in every instance self-interestwith the satisfaction of one ’ s self-interest ( or positive ) conceives. Bears on the idea that we actually only ever look out for our own well-being benefit... Their action is altruistic rather than “ egoistic ” framework for the defender of psychological renders.
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